Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution grants Congress “Power To Lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States.”
Taxation is the obligation of a sovereign and free people. Nobody likes taxes. Taxes should do as little harm as is possible. Ideally, taxes work with the free market, imposing discipline and efficiency, inspiring innovation precisely where the schemes of politicians (crony cap and trade) inevitably fail.
Whether you accept the claims of climate scientists or not, there are conservatives for carbon taxes.